Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Applied Chemistry, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, Iran


In this work, D-optimal mixture design was applied as an experimental design to screen and optimize the effect of the composition of a carbon paste on its performance. In this study, chitosan was offered as a ligand for the determination of La(III) with the carbon paste electrode. In the fabricated sensor, the greatest nernstian slope was achieved on the optimized mixture composition by experimental design: 60.00% w/w powder graphite, 1.53% w/w multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), 29.79% w/w paraffin oil, and 8.68% w/w chitosan. MWCNT was used for increasing the electrode response to La(III). The quadratic fitting pattern based on D-optimal model was used to find the desirability functions of the suggested design to assess the cross-interferences and the interactions between the factors. The fabricated sensor for determining the La(III) ions demonstrated a maximum nernstian slope equal to 19.70 mV.decade-1 along a linear range from 1.0×10−6 to 1.0×10−2 mol/L−1 and detection limit of 10−6 mol/L-1. The designed sensor was successfully tested in the pH range of 2-9 with suitable selectivity, fast response time (about 30 s) and long lifetime (over 2 months) was obtained without any deviation. The offered electrode was used successfully as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of La(III) with EDTA.

Graphical Abstract

Potentiometric Determination of La(III) Using Chitosan Modified Carbon Paste Electrode with An experimental Design


Main Subjects

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