Document Type : Original Article


1 Industrial Chemistry Department, Faculty of Life, Health & Allied Sciences, ITM Vocational University, Vadodara, India

2 Solaris Chem Tech Industries limited, Vadodara, India

3 Applied Chemistry Department, Faculty of Technology & Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, India


Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, is widely used in agricultural and non-agricultural areas all over the world. During field application, it readily undergoes degradation due to microbial decomposition, hydrolysis, volatilization and photolysis. Among these, photodegradation is one of the major pathways for its decomposition on field. In the present study, eight novel benzil derivatives and their application for the photostabilization of chlorpyrifos under UV light are reported. The percentage recovery of chlorpyrifos after UV irradiation (in the presence and absence of the benzil derivatives) is obtained by HPLC analysis. Results indicate significant enhancement in the photostabilization of chlorpyrifos using these benzil derivatives (96.63% recovery) in comparison to 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone taken as  a reference photostabilizer (78.80% recovery). Enhanced photostabilization, in case of benzil derivatives, is attributed to the assembly of two hydroxy and keto pairs in a single structure. 

Graphical Abstract

Improved Photostabilization of Chlorpyrifos Insecticide with Novel Benzil Derivatives


Main Subjects

[1] Zepp R.G., Cline D.M. Environ. Sci. Technol., 1977, 11:359

[2] Elliott M., Farnham A.W., Janes N.F., Needham P.H., Pulman D.A. Nature, 1974, 248:710

[3] Kaushik B., Dureja P. Pesticide Sci., 1995, 43:333

[4] Manzoor H., Perschke H., KutscherR. Pesticide Sci., 1990, 28:345

[5] Gan J., Hussain M., Perschke H.,Rathor M.N. Chemosphere, 1990, 21:589

[6] Sundaram K.M.S., Curry J. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B, 1996, 31:1041

[7] Sundaram K.M.S., Curry J. Chemosphere, 1996, 32:649

[8] Bootharaju M.S., Pradeep T. Langmuir, 2012, 28:2671

[9] Kamel A., Byrne C., Vigo C., Ferrario J., Stafford C., Verdin G., Siegelman F., Knizner S., Hetrick J. Water Res., 2009, 43:522

[10] Atwood D., Paisley-Jones C., Pesticides Industry: Sales and Usage 2008-2012, Market Estimates. Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, 2017

[11] Barceló D. J. Chromatography A, 1993, 643:117

[12] Janice E. C.; Carr Russel L., Toxicological Sciences, 1993, 21:111

[13] Allender W.J., Keegan J., Bull. Environ.Contaminat. Toxicol., 1991, 46:313

[14] Barcelo D., Durand G., De Bertrand N. Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 1993, 38:183

[15] (a) Hussain, M., Perschke, H. and Kutscher, R., Pest Manag. Sci., 1990, 28:345; (b) Hussain, M.; Gan, J., Perschke, H. Rather, M. N., Chemosphere, 1990, 21:589

[16] Dexter, D. L., J. Chem. Phys., 1953, 21:836

[17] Kavarnos G.J., Turro N.J. Chem. Rev., 1986, 86:401

[18] Leppard, D.; Hayoz, P.; Vogel, T.; Wendeborn, F., Chimia, 2002, 56:216

[19] Waiblinger F., Keck J., Stein M., Fluegge A.P., Kramer H.E.A., Leppard D. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2000, 104:1100

[20] Paterson M.J., Robb M.A., Blancafort L., DeBellis A.D. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2005, 109:7527

[21] Deota P.T., Upadhyay P.R., Patel K.B., Mehta K.J., Varshney A.K., Mehta M.H. Natur. Product Lett., 2002, 16:329

[22] Deota P.T., Upadhyay P.R., Valodkar V.B. Natur. Product Res., 2003, 17:21

[23] Mosquera M., Penedo J.C., Ríos Rodríguez M.C., Rodríguez-Prieto F. J. Phys. Chem., 1996, 100:5398

[24] Woessner G., Goeller G., Kollat P., Stezowski J.J., Hauser M., Klein U.K.A., Kramer H.E.A. J. Phys. Chem., 1984, 88:5544

[25] Ghiggino K.P., Scully A.D., Leaver I.H. J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90:5089

[26] Otterstedt J. A., J. Chem. Phys., 1973, 58:5716