In this research study, we prepared different thin films of ZnO:Cu, ZnO:Mo, and Zno:Mo:Cu using a magnetron co-sputtering method. At the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that one prepared co-sputtered Zno:Mo:Cu thin films. We also annealed the samples at 100, 200, 400, and 800 °C. The samples were both theoretically and experimentally. We investigate the AFM results of the samples in the above-mentioned temperatures and compare different parameters of saturation roughness, height density function, and permutation entropy.
The results demonstrated that the height density function became wider and the roughness decreased at higher temperatures. Moreover, the plot of permutation entropy versus roughness enabled us to distinguish between our samples.